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By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Opera, Peter Schmoll und seine Nachbarn , J. Clarinet Concertino in E flat major , J. Clarinet Quintet in B flat major , J. Incidental music for Turandot Schiller , after Gozzi , J. Horn Concertino in E minor , J. Grand duo concertant, J. Trio in G minor for Piano, vc, fl , J. Invitation to the Dance , J.

Clarinet Concerto No. Bassoon Concerto in F, J. Incidental music for Preciosa P. Wolff, after Miguel de Cervantes , J. Opera, Peter Schmoll und seine Nachbarn , Op. Incidental music for Turandot Schiller , after Gozzi , Op. Bassoon Concerto in F, Op. Clarinet Quintet in B flat major , Op. Horn Concertino in E minor , Op. Grand duo concertant in E flat major, Op. To attain certainty of fingering in the lower position, one of these two methods must next be adopted. Choice must be made as to which method of study be next pursued, according to the individuality and intelli- gence of the learner.

Practice of intervals in C major: I. Schroeder, Catechism of Violin playing. Here great care must be taken to distinguish between the differences that exist in these intervals, whether the 3 rd is minor or major; the fifth perfect or imperfect, etc. Simultaneously with the practice of intervals for the left hand, bowing exercises for the passing of the bow from one string to another must be taken, also skipping over a string as in sevenths and octaves.

The scales, and, later, intervals and chords, must likewise be studied with various bowings and also legato. First, two notes should be taken to one bow, then gradually more, also with single notes and bound notes mixed. The practice of intervals may now be extended to the following.


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Chord exercises in arpeggio form. To reach the C in the second octave with the little finger, whose natural position on the E string is on the note B, it must be stretched, care being taken to avoid moving the wrist and altering the whole position of the hand. These are best classified into "primary" bowings Grund-Bogenstriche of which there are six different examples, and "secondary" bowings Neben-Bogenstriche. Primary bowings. The rapid detached stroke with the whole bow Grand detache. This is executed in such a manner that the bow moves quickly from its nut to its point, and back again in the same line, parallel to the bridge.

Between each stroke there must be a pause, but during it the bow must not leave the string. It must be so quickly executed that a crotchet is made to sound like a semiquaver. The stick must be firmly held between the thumb and the first and second fingers. The elbow, at the commencement of the down stroke must rest close to the body, and, on reaching the point of the bow, not be raised above the stick.

Especial care is needed in order to make the up strokes equal in power to the down strokes. The "singing" stroke. Also executed with the whole bow. The first contact must be delicate, and the single tones must follow each other without interruption. The player, drawing the bow quite parallel with the bridge, must press more and more as the point is reached. At the change of stroke, the wrist makes a slight move- ment, and the elbow assumes the same positions as in the previous grand detache bowing.

The detached hammered martellato bowing. This stroke is chiefly made at the point of the bow, which must not leave the string. With every note the stick is pressed or pushed by the thumb in the direction of the index finger, so that each tone is sharply cut out, but with a musical quality. The up strokes must receive a stronger pressure. This bowing can also be played at the nut end, and of course entirely with the wrist, which must be held lightly over the strings. The elbow must be tolerably close to the body. The marteld bowing is an excellent preparatory study for staccato, which is really only one out of a number of marteld notes taken in one bow.

Rendering: 4. Detached stroke with the fore-arm. As indicated by its name, is executed by the fore-arm and the wrist, and from the middle to the point of the bow. The upper arm must remain quite still. In this bowing no pause must be made between the notes, but they must be con- nected easily and agreeably together. The "skipping" stroke. This stroke is made at the middle of the bow, which must be lightly held be- tween the fingers and controlled by the wrist.

The stick is made to vibrate strongly, whereby the bow is caused to move up and down. Afterwards several notes may be taken on one string, then on the different strings. The rebounding or springing sautilld bow. This bowing differs from the foregoing in that the bow rebounds from the string after each note, and is then permitted to fall upon it again from above. In order to avoid too great dryness or hardness in the tone, the bow when falling on the string must be gently controlled.

Tannhäuser, WWV 70 (Wagner, Richard) - IMSLP/Petrucci Music Library: Free Public Domain Sheet Music

Secondary bowings. The bound, or legato bowing. In this, as many notes are played at one stroke as may be found connected by the curved legato sign, or as necessitated by the phrasing. In passing from one string to another the wrist will require special watchfulness. The staccato stroke. This is, as already stated, a series of marteld notes taken in one bow, and must first be slowly practised with the up bow, to the point, and with a free wrist; the thumb only exerting a slight SECOND PART. The staccato is also executed with the down bow, beginning near the nut.

The springing staccato stroke. This consists of a series of rebounding notes "Primary bowing" No. The Tremolo is a succession of quick notes in very short strokes, and is executed with a loose wrist, the upper half of the bow lying upon the strings. Only the upper half of the bow is used, and it is held lightly with the thumb and first two fingers. The Ponticello.

This is executed with the bow lying quite close to the bridge, whereby the tone becomes somewhat nasal. When so produced by the whole string orchestra it often makes a fine effect. Also with the bow resting on the string, but, unlike the foregoing bowing, it is executed just over the fingerboard. The notes so played yield a delicate flute-like quality of tone. By arpeggi is meant the intervals of a chord in quick succession. These may be extended over three or four strings with the most varied bowings and rhythms.

Par- ticular care must be taken to keep the wrist flexible. In example e the bow should be turned over so as to bring the hair almost flat upon the string, the hair preferably being rather tighter than usual. A slight "jerk" imparted to the down stroke sends the bow skipping over the strings of its own accord, on repeating the same arpeggio a few times. The Vibrato or close shake is a trembling similar to the vibrato of a vocalist.

Em- ployed occasionally and with discretion it is of good effect. On the violin it is produced by setting the finger in tremulous movement upon the string, so that the pitch slightly rises and falls. Only the thumb and the finger in use must participate in the holding of the instrument. There is no special sign for the close shake in general use, its employment depending upon the player's taste.

Sometimes it is indicated by the word vibrato. The trill is an even alternation, usually quick, of two adjacent notes and may be executed on all the notes of the violin. The note played alternately with the principal note may be either a tone or a half tone distant.

The trill is made both with and without a turn at the end. The turn is played in one bow with the shake, and at the same speed. In a series of shakes the turn is reserved for the last: Various kinds of turns: Final shake Usually the lower note of the two constituting the trill is taken first. If it is intended that the upper note should begin the trill, it will be indicated by a small note before the principal note: i The upper note of the trill is always understood to be in accordance with the key. If it is meant to be raised or lowered a semitone, a sharp or flat will be placed over the shake.

To execute the trill evenly, it must first be practised slowly. The finger making the trill must be lifted high, falling upon the string with firmness and elasticity, so that it is again lifted high. The bow meantime passes lightly over the string. The trill is studied upon every note in both tones and semitones. The Mordent Pralltriller. The mordent is a single alternation of two notes preceding the principal note, and is generally indicated by the following sign: a Rendering.

The double trill. To this species of shake, difficult of execution, ap- plies all that has been said about the single trill. The player's chief care will consist in making both fingers fall quite simultaneously upon the strings. Scale practice demands diligent application. By its means we attain certainty of intonation, power and flexi- bility of tone, as well as familiarity with the various kinds of bowing.

The scales are then practised with varying bowings and rhythms, legato and staccato, for example: i e f m. T; g Fingering of the scales. To each note in the first position belongs its own finger, whether the note is raised or lowered a semitone, the same finger being used. As a rule in ascending passages the open string is used; downwards, the 4 th finger is preferred in its stead.

If the notes of the open strings are raised a semitone, usually the 4 th finger plays it on the string below. In the chromatic scales , the i st , 2 nd and 3 rd fingers will each be used twice in succession, and of course must be pushed forward or backward with firmness to the next note. The 4 th has one note only on each string assigned to it. The Positions. The various places for the left hand, up and down the neck, are known as the positions, and each is deter- mined by the place reached by the first finger. If the hand is so placed that the first finger is ready to press down these notes it will be termed the first position.

If the first finger is upon these i it will be the second position. The ball of the thumb must not touch the neck. As in the first position the first finger remains upon the strings as guide. The thumb also, lies opposite the first and second fingers. In this position the ball of the hand comes in con- tact with the ribs of the violin.

From this position upward the thumb is withdrawn further and further underneath the neck of the instrument. Position i 49 VII. The positions retain their names when the notes are sharpened or flattened a semitone, only one must frequently change the finger in enharmonic passages, or the position. Changing the position. Sliding from one position to another must be executed with ease and certainty, and it is especially necessary to grip the violin between the chin and the collar bone, in order to give the hand free play. Particular care must be bestowed upon Sliding the fingers whilst changing positions.

If in passing to a higher or lower position, the last note of the position just left, and the first of the position aimed at, have to be played by the same finger, it must slide over the string firmly, and without leaving it, whether the notes in question are legato or not. CO CO.. CO OQ. CO [ CO. CO CO. CO GO.. The first note must be played firmly by the finger assigned to it, without causing the slide to be heard.

In the following examples, the accompanying fingers are indicated by small notes. In proceeding downward to another position, the finger on the last note slides with that which is proceeding in advance so far as to find its place in the lower position, but with the understanding that in case the note that follows is- not to be played with the same finger, it must not remain down. I kt E - I 1 p If the first note of higher position is to be played by a finger which is not the last used in the lower position, it must slide with it until the proper place in the higher position is reached, but must be lifted as soon as the finger which has to play the first note is put on the string.

But ere it has reached it, the first note in this position must be gripped. If the notes are bound together to be played in one bow, then the portamento or slide will be audible. The player must beware lest the portamento from one tone to another becomes exaggerated, or perhaps the entire enharmonic scale lying between the notes will be produced.

All "whining" must be avoided, and the note next that to which the finger is sliding should not be heard. The violinist must know the major and minor scales in all the positions, above all acquiring certainty in the various positions. On this account stress must be laid on the study of the same with the greatest possible diligence. Double stops. The violin is capable of producing a great variety of double notes or double stops. In conjunction with an open string, all the intervals may be given. Unisons: In unisons, the note given by the open string is pro- duced simultaneously on the next lower string.

The fingering adjusts itself according to the position in which one is playing, and it may be practised in the first four positions. Seconds: At a, the lower note will be played on the lower string, but at b the upper note is produced on the lower string. The fingering at a is conformable to the position employed either the 3 rd , 2 nd or i st finger may be on the lower note. At b, the upper note can be played either in the 2 nd , 3 rd , 4 th or 5 th position and either the 4 th , 3 rd , 2 nd or I st finger may be placed on the upper note.

The thirds at a lie in the first two positions. Fifths: The perfect fifths in this example have each two open strings; the imperfect fifths are played either in the first or half position. Sixths: in the first position. Sevenths : in the first and second positions. Double stops without open strings. Minor Thirds. Thirds are fingered with the I st and 3 rd , or the 2 nd and 4 th , also with the 3 rd and 4 th fingers in a series of thirds. Fingering: J, J and J. Imperfect Perfect fifths are fingered J, J, or J. Imperfect fifths are fingered with the same fingers as fourths.

Major Sixths. Minor 6tl. Fingered J, J and J. Fingered J, in the upper positions frequently j and J. It is necessary to remark that the foregoing examples do not give the fingering of the scales in double stops, only the fingerings which may be used in double stops as met with singly. To these double stops without open strings, those in conjunction with an open string pp. The fust stops on the D and G string are obviously excluded from this. Chords of three notes. In triple stops the two upper notes have mostly the same duration, the lower note being previously released by the bow.

Three notes may, however, be made to sound simultaneously, but special skilfulness is requisite, and the sounds cannot be of long duration. Formerly Paganini, Ole Bull, and other violin virtuosi, used a very flat bridge in order to play in three and four parts. Such tricks may be produced even with the ordinary bridge, by unscrewing the nut of the bow, passing the stick underneath the fiddle, letting the hair lie upon the strings, and holding both hair and stick together with the right hand.

As a rule, when several chords in three or four parts succeed each other, they are played with down bows in order to obtain the necessary power and equality of tone. Natural and artificial Harmonics, or Flageolet tones, may be produced on the violin. The natural harmonics are obtained by placing the finger quite lightly, and without pressure, upon the string, and bowing with great care.

From the middle of the string upwards towards the bridge, and also from the middle towards the nut, lie natural harmonics at the nodes of the string. The sign indicating that a note is to be played as a harmonic, is either o, flageolet or son harmonique.

G string. E string. D string. These are produced by playing two notes on one string, the lower one being pressed down firmly, the upper one lightly. The distance of these two notes from each other may be either a third, fourth, fifth or octave. The most usual artificial harmonics are those at a fourth. At a fourth: G string. At a fifth: G string. At a third: G string. Artificial harmonics may also be produced at the distance of a minor third, but these speak with difficulty. At an octave: G string. In like manner on the higher strings. In the lower positions those at the octave necessitate a wide stretch between the i st and 4 th fingers, rendering them impossible for small hands.

Double harmonics. Both natural and artificial harmonics may be played as double stops. The former speak best, the latter being more difficult. They require very thin stringing. Natural double harmonics: " 1 i! G string D-s. Similarly on the upper strings. Fifths, produced at the distance of a fifth, fourth and third: i i b. The pizzicato. The thumb is placed against the fingerboard. In pieces to be played pizzicato through- out, the thumb may be employed.

In this case the violin is held down underneath the right arm , as, for instance, in the Serenade in Don Giovanni, when the violin replaces the mandoline: Allegretto. The pizzi- cato is also possible with the left hand, and is chiefly thus employed when notes played by the bow and pizzi- cato notes follow each other quickly. Left hand pizzicato is indicated by -f- over the notes, and is usually executed by the finger which has pressed down the preceding note, or else with the fourth finger.

Notes may be also played arco and pizzicato simul- taneously, for example, pizz. Pizzi- cato stops in chords are also mixed with notes played by the bow, and are then plucked with the second finger of the right hand. The m? PART ffl. The rendering. The rendering of a piece implies its artistic reproduc- tion, every necessary artistic resource being therein blended.

The violinist is capable of a perfect rendering only if, in addition to a firm, easy technique of the left hand, adroitness in bowing and susceptibility to the modifications of tone, and a technique equal to all demands made upon it, he has under his control a higher spiritual musical development, fine taste, and a warm individual feeling. Only through the combination of all these qualities can one reinvest the dead signs of the composer with spirit and life, and cause his work to pass before the hearer's soul as an ideal, living picture.

Intellectual culture. Under this head must be included a knowledge of the theory of music, which renders possible the clear understanding of the sequence of ideas which the composer has expressed through time, degrees of movement, dynamic signs, melodic periods, and the harmonies upon which they are constructed, the rhythmic combinations; and through all these peculiarities the character of a piece as well as the individuality of the composer.

And where special directions for the rendering are not employed, to perceive from the text of the work itself the correct rendering. If an artist has given expression to all the composer's written dynamic gradations of tone-colour with understanding and feeling, it will be artistically refined; if infused with his own individuality, and if no awkwardness appear technically with respect to the manipulation of his instrument, his performance will be regarded as tasteful.

If the artist has studied and learned how to give expression to the individual feeling of the composer, his own individuality in the performance is also of great con- sequence. It consists in this: that the same piece in per- formance shall appear ever fresh and new. Individual feeling is subject to continuous change, through influences from within and without, consequently an artist who has acquired a full and active control over all his powers does not perform a piece the second time in precisely the same manner as the first time.

Where however, this is the case, it may be regarded as a sign that the performer has not yet arrived at a complete artistic freedom. Upon this subject no exhaustive treatise will be given, but only some observations upon intelligent phrasing as applied technically to violin playing. As in singing, and in wind instruments the breath, so in the playing of stringed instruments the change of bowing, is the potent medium through which phrases are divided, distinguished from each other, and rendered clear.

The bowings indicated underneath the notes show the correct phrasing, and also the effect aimed at in connecting the idea with the previous example. In passages where the phrasing is not plainly denned by the changes of bow, the change occurring in the middle of a phrase, the strokes must be made to follow each other as smoothly as possible i. Allegretto ma non troppo. Passages which, owing to rapid time and bowing, are not easily to be rendered clear by the player, must at least have the real meaning of the phrase indicated with correct accentuation.

It will then become apparent in the render- ing; for example. Allegro molto vivace. Concerto by Lipinski Bowing marks by David. It is still harder than in compositions by violinists or in pieces marked by them, to make the right changes of bow in the sense of the phrasing in the works of com- posers who are not thoroughly familiar with the technical handling of the violin, and whose indications of bowing are somewhat eccentric, or merely mark the difference between staccato and legato. Even our classical composers have not always been sufficiently strict in this respect, and the appropriate phrasing has been supplied by many violinists, as for example in the Quartets of Mozart and Beethoven.

The fingering is just as essential to correct phrasing, as the bowing. Generally the changes of position are made so as to suit the requirements of the phrasing, that it may be rendered smoothly. This is particularly needful in long sequences of notes on one string. In the first four bars the positions are not so well suited to the phrasing as compared to bars 5 and 6.

In this passage from Richard Wagner's "Siegfried", most players change the position with the first note of the third bar, whereas it should occur after this note, on the cjf. Here also the changes of bowing should coincide with the phrasing marked. It is essential to a correct rendering that, even in the first pieces played by a beginner, a perception of the phrasing as a whole should be acquired; not, as is usually the case, regarding the bowing marks and the legato signs as exclusively determinative of it.

In this respect, unfortun- ately, there is nothing offered for the student's enlighten- ment and the improvement of his taste in the existing violin methods; at least, no method is known to me con- taining apposite suggestions and remarks on this head. Pictorial representation of the bow-strokes. The first sign indicates the lower end of the bow, or nut Ger.

Hermann Schroeder, in his edition of Kreutzer's 42 Studies dedicated to Joachim , has introduced a further development of these signs. They are not placed in their usual position, but sideways.

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The same in a simpler and more condensed style. Bow Down stroke. Up stroke. Read from the left, the bowings in the first example are shown together with their notes, and the signs of up and down strokes are then to be found in their ordinary positions. The editor of the Studies has, however, given the preference to the employment of the second manner of writing these, on account of the simplified and easily produced representations of the bow, and also because of the compressed form of the bowing strokes given below it.

The pictorial signs for the bowing are more particularly for use in such studies as exemplify different methods of playing, or such as have groups of repeated phrasings and bowings; in the remaining studies they are employed wher- ever the ordinary signs and terms do not suffice to show the relative extent of the distribution of the bow. The mute. The mute is a clamp with three notches, which, to obtain a muffled tone, is fastened on the bridge between the strings. Its use is indicated by "con sordino," its removal by "senza sordino," or by "with" and "without mute".

There are also mutes which are fastened to the violin in order to avoid this noisy fixing and unfixing, being brought into action by a slight push. These mutes are not made as a clasp, but consist of a small plate which presses against the bridge, and not upon it. ScTiroeder, Catechism of Violin playing. The simultaneous sounding of subordinate and combination tones. Without entering into the province of musical acoustics, the well-known experiment only can be mentioned here demon- strating that mingled with the notes one plays, others are audible. It is with this object that a snuffbox or a key is laid on the upper table of the violin.

If one plays double stops in slow tempo whilst one of these articles is thus placed, not only two notes, but three, four, or even more, may be heard. In order to obtain good and correct progressions in harmony, the double notes played must follow in suitable sequence. Generally, two intervals of the same kind should not follow each other. Patent No. The inventor says in his specification "Researches into the sympathetic tones of instruments of the violin species, and a theory deduced therefrom as to the movement of the bow upon the strings", Leipsic, C.

Fritzsch amongst other things the following: In order to produce upon stringed instruments more especially the violin, the harmonic overtones of the notes played, as well as the combination tones, a weight g is brought over the upper table of the violin fastened to it, but allowed free play. This weight, when the instrument is being played, vibrates with the vibrations of the upper table, being kept in its place by the spring h, f.

That the weight, during its vibration, may be firmly kept in one fixed position, the holder f is fastened to the ribs of the violin. On the other hand the shifting, very elastic tail h above this holder, with its fastened end h 1 over a peg s , grips the vibrating weight g controlling its movements up and down upon the instrument.

With the spring h in position, one can then fix the screw and holder f over any part of the ribs, bringing the weight g into action upon various parts of the body of the violin. Yet its application will best sue- H. The spring being quite flexible, may be bent to any shape, and in the circular form shown above helps the firm position of the weight with respect to the amount of pressure. The under, and somewhat concave, disk of the weight is covered with paper, which agreeably modifies the tone quality. The use of the vibrator permits the production of curious and often striking effects, especially in light and flowing playing, as, perchance, in chorales, when three, four or more parts become audible in regular harmonic sequence.

The tone of the violin is caused to resemble very much that of the harmonium, and nuances from the lightest piano to at least mezzo forte are obtainable. Adelburg, August von, born , at Constantinople, originally intended for the Diplomatic service, was a distinguished violinist and composer. He was taught by Mayseder.

He died at Vienna, Oct. Alard, Delphin, born March 8th , at Bayonne, a noted virtuoso and teacher amongst others, of Sarasate ; after Baillot's death became professor at Paris Conservatoire until his retirement in He produced concertos, a violin school and studies. Died Febr. Arditi, Luigi, born at Crescentino Italy , settled in London as conductor. Armingaud, Jules, born , Paris, renowned there as a quartett player. Artot, Alex. Joseph Montagney, born Feb. He studied at Paris Conservatoire under Kreutzer, became member of several orchestras, then made ex- tended concert tours through Europe and America.

Auer, Leopold, born May 28th , at Vesprin, Hungary. Pupil ofDont in Vienna, also of Joachim. From he was leader at Dusseldorf, then at Hamburg, and from in a similar capacity with the Imperial orchestra, St. Petersburg, and professor at the Conser- vatoire there. He taught at the Paris Conservatoire, and wrote a great violin method, studies, concertos and quartetts. He died Sept. Barcewicz, Stanislaus, born April i6th , at Warsaw, pupil of Laub in Moscow; mostly engaged in conceit tours. Bargheer, Karl Louis, born Dec. Died Became a left-handed player, owing to an accident to one of his fingers.

Since leader at Krefeld. Bazzini, Antonio, born Nov. He lives in Milan as teacher of composition at the Conservatorio, and since as its Director. Becker, Jean, born , at Mannheim; pupil of Kettenus there and of Alard in Paris; was leader at Mannheim and on resigning made concert tours.

At Florence he founded the Florentine Quartett, in , with Masi, Chiostri and Hilpert subsequently Spitzer-Hegyesi , which was dissolved in ; he then travelled with his children, professionally, and died in Benda, Franz, born Nov. Later he became a violinist pupil of Konyczek and Graun , entered the Berlin opera orchestra in , and became leader in He died at Potsdam, He was leader at Salzburg and at Stuttgart; since professor in, and since Director of, the Prague Conser- vatorium. Beriot, Charles de, born Feb. His works are well known, chiefly his concertos and Themes varies.

He resided in Brussels, became blind in , and died in April Biber, Franz, born , at Wartenburg on the Bohemian frontier, died at Salzburg, where he was Capell- meister. He was raised to the nobility by the Emperor Leopold i st. A few sonatas composed by him are to be found in David's advanced school of violin playing. Blagrove, Henry Gamble, born Oct.

Taught by his father, he played in public at the age of five, and on the opening of the Royal Academy of Music, London, was one of the first pupils, studying with F. In he studied under Spohr. He was for 30 years one of the most prominent English players, and died Dec. He was Kammervirtuos at Sondershausen, and subsequently leader at Nurem- burg.

He was engaged chiefly in the Viennese Court orchestra, and as teacher in the Vienna Conservatorium. Bohrer, Anton, born ? He was leader at Berlin and Hanover, and died in He was leader at Cassel, and subsequently at Meiningen and Hanover Court- Capellmeister , where he was pensioned in Boucher, Alexandre Jean, born , Paris, died He was a great charlatan in violin playing, yet was received with much applause on his concert tours.

Brassin, Gerhard, bora June loth , at Aix; pupil of David. He was leader at Berne and Gothen- burg, then teacher in Stem's Conservatorium, Berlin; from conductor of the Breslau Musikverein; since then living in St. Hellmesberger at Vienna. He was member of the Court opera orchestra, visited Russia as virtuoso, then became teacher in Moscow Conserva- toire, afterwards at the Leipzig Conservatorium. Burmester, Willy, born at Hamburg, March i6th , studied under Joachim at the High School, Berlin, but elected to make a special study by himself of Paganini difficulties, in whose works he is probably unrivalled.

He appeared in London in Cambini, Giov. Giuseppe, born , at Livorno, died , Paris, where he had settled in Campagnoli, Bartolomeo, born Sept. He was from leader at the Leipsic Gewandhaus concerts; subsequently director at Neu-Strelitz, where he died Nov. Wrote a good method, and some studies. Cannabich, Christian, born , at Mannheim, died , at Munich or at Frankfort ; was leader at Mann- heim, and in this capacity, as also in that of teacher, was quite remarkable.

He studied with Molique in Stuttgart, was leader of some of the chief English orchestras, and was also a fine solo player. Coenen, Franz, born Dec. Solo violinist to the late King of Holland; accomplished solo and quartett player; living at Amsterdam. Collins, Isaac, born , died , in London, was a celebrated English performer. His son Collins, Viotti, was also an excellent player. Colonne, Edouard, born July 23rd , at Bordeaux; studied at the Paris Conservatoire under Girard and Sauzay, but became a conductor, and is, as such, very celebrated in Paris.

Colyns, Jean Baptiste, born Nov. He studied at the Conservatoire there, has been since a teacher in that institution and since also at the Antwerp School of Music. Bologna , was the founder of the Italian school, which in its executive and creative aspects inaugurated a marked epoch in the art of violin playing. Violin composition and technique were brought by him into definite form, serving as a sure foundation for later times.

Like all the violinists of that period, Corelli was also a composer, and in this capacity stood prominently forward. His music has lasted to our own day, the complete edition having been brought out by Joachim and Chrysander, and separate sonatas arranged for violin and piano by G. Jensen, and others. Living chiefly in Rome, Corelli was held in extraordinary esteem as violinist and com- poser, and a great number of pupils crowded round him. His most celebrated pupils were Geminiani and Locatelli.

He died in , after a tour to Naples. Clement, Franz, born , at Vienna, died there in was first Concertmeister at the theatre "An der Wien". Courvoisier, Carl, born Nov. I2th , at Basle; lived in Diisseldorf and enjoyed much favour as teacher and player. He went to England in , and is now living in Liverpool. Author of a violin school and studies, also sundry articles on the technique of violin playing. Cramer, Wilhelm, born or , at Mannheim, died , in London, where he was leader at the Italian Opera, and in various concert societies. He was re- garded in England as the first violinist of his time.

Croner, Ferdinand, Carl and Johann brothers , were all members of the Munich Court orchestra between and In they were raised to the rank of the nobility. From taught in the Conservatorium at Helsingfors. Damrosch, Leopold, born , at Posen; pupil of Hubert Ries, prepared for a medical career. He was from Capellmeister at Breslau, and since in New York, where he died in Dancla,Jean Bapt. Dando, J. He was one of the pioneers of quartett playing in England, also for many years promi- nent as leader of the best orchestras in London, in his day. David, Ferd.

He was distin- guished both as teacher and leader. As composer, he produced many violin works, -- Concertos, Variations, Studies, and also a School, besides editing many previ- ously unpublished pieces by the old masters. De Ahna, Heinrich Karl Hermann, born June 22nd , at Vienna; pupil of May seder and Mildner, until , when he relinquished music for a military career, entering the Austrian army. In he became Lieutenant, was in the war of , but at its conclusion resumed the violin. He made concert tours, was engaged in in the Royal opera orchestra, Berlin, and became first Concertmeister; he was second violin in Joachim's quar- tett.

Died Nov. During about ten years he made many appearances in Germany, played in London, at the Crystal Palace, with great success; and died in Buenos Ayres, Nov. Dittersdorf, Karl von, born Nov. Dont, Jacob, born March 2nd , at Vienna, died there Nov. He was member of the Imperial orchestra and teacher in the Conservatorium; produced excellent studies.

Dreyschock, Raimund, born Aug. Dupont, Joseph, born Aug. Pupil of Prume in the Liege Conservatoire, sub- sequently teacher in the same. Dupuis, Jacques, born Oct. Dupuy, Jean Baptiste, born , at Courcelles near Neu- chatel, died April 3rd , at Stockholm; was leader there, and also at Copenhagen. He composed concer- tos, duets and operas. Durand, Frederic, born at Warsaw in , died in the middle of the iQth century; pupil of Viotti, in Paris.

He made many concert tours; entered the French army in , became adjutant to a General, but must have taken his leave after several years, for he travelled again as a virtuoso and became eventually violinist in Stras- burg theatre. He was leader at Berne and Bremen, paid successful visits to Germany, Switzerland, Austria and Italy, and since has been active in Hamburg as soloist, professor and author. He has composed studies, violin solos, piano pieces and songs. Eck, Joh. Friedrich, born , at Mannheim, date of death not known; one of the best i8th century players; lived in Munich and Paris.

Petersburg; he died insane at Bamberg in Eichhorn, Ernst and Eduard brothers , born April 3oth , and Oct. Both found positions in the Coburg orchestra. Ernst died June i6th Ernst, Heinr. QI pathetique, Elegy, "Otello" fantasia, and Hungarian variations. Ferrari, Domenico, born at the beginning of the i8th cen- tury; pupil of Tartini. He passed in Vienna for a great violinist, also exercising his profession in Stuttgart and Paris.

In he was murdered.


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  • Fiorillo, Federigo, born , at Brunswick, date of death not known. His 36 violin Caprices are celebrated. Fischer, Johann, born in the middle of the I7th century, in Swabia, was one of the first German violinists who made a reputation. He was, at the beginning of the 1 8th century, Capellmeister at Schwerin, and died in as Capellmeister to the Margrave at Schwedt. Fleischhauer , F. Franzl, Ignaz, born June 3rd , at Mannheim, died ; was leader in the Electoral orchestra; an accom- plished orchestral player.

    His son and pupil Franzl, Ferdinand, born May 24th , atSchwetzingen, died , at Mannheim, was more celebrated than his father. Ganz, Leopold, born Nov. Gavinies, Pierre, born May nth or , at Bor- deaux, died Sept. He wrote studies, notably "Les 24 matinees". Geminiani, Francesco, born towards the end of the i?

    The best of his violin sonatas have been published in G. Jensen's "Classische Violin Musik". Giardini, Felice, born April i2th , at Turin, died Dec. He toured, with brilliant success, in Germany and England, became orchestral conductor, and later theatre director, in which capacity, however, he had no success. Graun, J. Gottlieb, born at the commencement of the 1 8th century, died Oct 27th brother of Heinrich Graun, the composer of "Der Tod Jesu" , was leader in the Court orchestra, Berlin.

    Griinberg, Max, born Dec. He was solo violinist at Meiningen under Btilow, leader and teacher in the Sondershausen Conservatorium, then at Prague, and now lives in Berlin, where he has founded a Conservatorium; is a celebrated teacher. He was member of the orchestra, and subse- qently conductor, at the Grand Opera, then became concert conductor, in which capacity he introduced Beethoven's symphonies to the Parisians.

    Founder of the celebrated Conservatoire concerts. Haddock, Edgar, born in Leeds, , taught by his father; appeared in public at the age of six. Originator of the Leeds Musical Evenings. Halir, Karl, born Feb. He was soloist in Bilse's orchestra, leader at Mannheim and now at Weimar. Hann, W. His five sons received their education first as choir boys at the Chapel Royal, afterwards all studying the violin or 'cello at the Royal Academy of Music. Brahms' Sestett for strings was performed in London, , entirely by this musical family. Ha user, Miska, born , at Pressburg, died Dec.

    A few of his com- positions are in vogue, e. Heckmann, Robert, born Nov. Heermann, Hit go, born March 3rd , at Heilbronn; pupil of de Beriot; was leader at Frankfort, and since principal violin teacher at Hoch's Conservatorium. Hegar, Friedr. Hellmesberger, Georg, born April 24th , at Vienna, died Aug. His eldest son, Georg, born , was leader at Hanover, where he died in His younger brother Hellmesberger, Joseph, born Nov. He became very noted as a quartett player.

    His son Joseph, born , was from solo violinist in the Court orchestra; died Oct. Hermann, Friedr. Hess, Willy, pupil of Joachim, was leader at Frankfort and at Rotterdam; then settled in Manchester as solo violinist in Sir Charles Halle's orchestra; in called to Cologne as leader in the Town Orchestra and teacher at the Conservatorium. Hilf, Arno, born March i4th , student of the Con- servatorium, Leipsic, until his i7th year. He was leader at Moscow, and in at Sondershausen; then joined the Gewandhaus orchestra, Leipsic. Hollander, Gustav, bora Feb. Composer of the "Spinnerlied", and other pleasing violin pieces.

    Jacobsen, Heinr. Jacobson, Simon, born Dec. Jansa, Leopold, bora , at Wildenschwert in Bohemia, died Jan. His compositions for- merly enjoyed much favour. He lived in Brunswick, Vienna, and London.

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    Japha, George, born Aug. Joachim, Joseph, Prof. He is the first among living violinists, and has formed a large number of prominent players. Kalliwoda, Johann Wenzeslaus, bora Feb. In addition to violin pieces, he wrote symphonies and overtures. Kes, Willem, bom Feb. He was leader at Amsterdam, and Capellmeister at Dordrecht, and since con- ductor at Amsterdam. Kiesewetter, Chr. Gottfried, born Dec. Kompel, August, born Aug. Konigslow, Otto von, born Nov. From , he was leader at Cologne and teacher at the Conservatorium, but resigned the former post on ac- count of a bad arm; received the title of Professor, and removed to Bonn.

    He was leader at the town theatre, Brfinn, at the Mozarteum, Salzburg, and in the Sondershausen Court orchestra, where he received in the title of "Kammervirtuos", He now lives in Hamburg as soloist and teacher. Kotek, Joseph, bom Oct. Kreutzer, Rudolph, born at Versailles, Nov.

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    He was a famous virtuoso, professor in the Paris Conservatoire, and composed much. His 42 Studies still remain at the head of all studies, and have passed through many editions. Beethoven's grandest violin sonata, Op. Kruse, J. Kudelski, Carl Matthias, born Nov. Lacroix, born , at Remberville, died , as music director at Liibeck. Lafont, Chas.


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    • Philippe, born Dec. Held appoint- ments in St. Petersburg and Paris. Lalo, Ed. He was quartett player in Paris, and then busied himself chiefly in composition. Lamotte, Franz, born , Vienna or in the Netherlands, died , in Holland. Lamoureux, Chas. He was violinist in various Parisian theatres, afterwards conductor, and has rendered great service by introducing German compo- sitions into France. Laub, Ferd. His Polonaise for the violin is well known. Lauterbach, Joh. He was leader at Munich, afterwards at Dresden pen- sioned , and taught in the Dresden Royal Conser- vatorium until Leclair, born , at Lyons, was murdered in Paris, Oct.

      His compositions have ap- peared in various editions, some of his best sonatas in G. He was for a long period a teacher in Brussels Con- servatoire, then resided in Paris. He produced a violin school, besides studies. He travelled much as a virtuoso, was from leader in the Royal orchestra, Dresden.

      His Military Concerto is the best known among his writings. Locatelli, Pietro, born , at Bergamo, died , Amster- dam; pupil of Corelli; was regarded in his day as a great virtuoso. He produced "L'Arte del Violino", con- certos and sonatas. Lolli, Antonio, born about , Bergamo, died , Naples, was, next to Locatelli, the chief founder of pure virtuosity, and owed his success to his technique alone.

      Of his artistic development there is little to be said. Lotto, Isidor, born Dec. He was teacher in Strasburg Con- servatorium, then in that of his native town. His "Fil- euse" is well known. Since , he was teacher in Paris Conservatoire; taught Wieniawski and Lotto. Matthdi, Heinr. Maurer, Ludwig Wilh. Petersburg, where he had lived since , having been previously leader in Hanover. His concerto for 4 violins is well-known. Mayseder, Joseph, born Oct. Mazas, Jacques Fereol, born Sept.

      He published a violin school, and studies. Mestrino, Nicolo, born , at Naples, died , Paris, as leader of the orchestra at the Opera Italien. He began as a street player, underwent imprisonment on account of some foolish prank, and during his confine- ment advanced his technique. Meyer, Waldemar, born Feb. His brother Felix is Royal Kammervirtuos, and an accomplished violinist.

      Milanollo, the sisters Therese and Maria, born Aug. They were regarded as juvenile prodigies Schroeder, Catechism of Violin playing. The younger died in in Paris, the elder retired into private life in Mildner, Moritz, born , at Turnitz, Bohemia, died Dec. Molique, Wilhelm Bernhard, born Oct. His 5th concerto has been frequently played by Mr. Carrodus, and his oratorio "Abraham" was, for a time, in favour. Mori, Nicolas, born in London, , died June i8th ; of Italian origin; he occupied, for nearly 30 years, a prominent position in England as a violinist.

      He was also a music publisher. Moser, Carl, born Jan. He was employed at intervals in the Berlin Court orchestra, being appointed Royal Capell- meister in His son Moser, August, born Dec. Mozart, Leopold, born Nov.